Will the entire global population ever experience Democracy for all? Democracy comes in many flavors and in most cases, increased democratization follows an authoritarian ruler's huge mistakes.
How does democracy evolve from the authoritarian rule? Many dictators self-destruct and they choose to surrender power. To prevent revolution, motivate citizens to fight wars, incentivize governments to provide public goods, outbid elite rivals, or limit factional violence. Their mistakes are often overconfidence and the illusion of total control.
Approximately a third of the global population lives in a backsliding democracy, which includes the United States of America.
Citizens – not just the territorial unit in which they live – are central to democracy. In addition to the conventional averages across countries, we, therefore, analyze liberal and electoral democracy across the world weighted by the size of each country’s population. This metric captures better how many people in the world enjoy democratic rights and freedoms.
Even in democracies, some groups – women, social groups, and the poor – are systematic call disadvantaged from access to political power. We, therefore, analyze political exclusion by gender, social groups, and socio-economic status.